What is Schizophrenia?

Mental Health Matters

Introduction

Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder characterised by continuous or relapsing episodes of psychosis. Major symptoms include hallucinations (typically hearing voices), delusions, and disorganised thinking. Other symptoms include social withdrawal, decreased emotional expression, and apathy. Symptoms typically come on gradually, begin in young adulthood, and in many cases never resolve. There is no objective diagnostic test; diagnosis is based on:

  • Observed behaviour;
  • A history that includes the person’s reported experiences; and
  • Reports of others familiar with the person.

To be diagnosed with schizophrenia, symptoms and functional impairment need to be present for six months (DSM-5) or one month (ICD-11). Many people with schizophrenia have other mental disorders that often includes an anxiety disorder such as panic disorder, an obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), or a substance use disorder.

About 0.3% to 0.7% of people are affected by schizophrenia during their lifetime. In 2017, there were an estimated 1.1 million…

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