Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a term mainly used to describe 2 conditions: ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.

Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are long-term conditions that involve inflammation of the gut.

Ulcerative colitis only affects the colon (large intestine). Crohn’s disease can affect any part of the digestive system, from the mouth to the bottom (anus).

People of any age can get IBD, but it’s usually diagnosed between the age of 15 and 40.

Symptoms of IBD

The symptoms of IBD include:

  • pain, cramps or swelling in the tummy
  • recurring or bloody diarrhoea
  • weight loss
  • extreme tiredness

Not everyone has all of these symptoms, and some people may have extra symptoms, including a high temperature, being sick (vomiting) and anaemia.

Arthritis, painful red eyes (uveitis), painful red skin bumps (erythema nodosum) and jaundice (primary sclerosing cholangitis) are less commonly linked with IBD.

The symptoms of IBD can come and go. There may be times when the symptoms are severe (a flare-up), followed by long periods when there are few or no symptoms at all (remission).

Read more about the symptoms of ulcerative colitis and the symptoms of Crohn’s disease.

Treating IBD

There’s currently no cure for ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease.

If you have mild ulcerative colitis, you may need minimal or no treatment and remain well for prolonged periods of time.

Treatment aims to relieve the symptoms and prevent them returning, and includes specific diets, lifestyle changes, medicines and surgery.

Medicines used to treat ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease include:

It’s estimated that 1 in 5 people with ulcerative colitis have severe symptoms that do not improve with medicine. In these cases, surgery may be necessary to remove an inflamed section of large bowel (colon).

Around 60 to 75% of people with Crohn’s disease will need surgery to repair damage to their digestive system and treat complications of Crohn’s disease.

People with ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease are also at increased risk of getting bowel cancer. Your doctor will recommend regular bowel check-ups (endoscopy) to check for cancer.

Causes of IBD

It’s unclear what causes IBD, but it’s thought to be caused by a combination of factors, including:

  • genetics – you’re more likely to get IBD if you have a close relative with the condition
  • a problem with your immune system

People who smoke are twice as likely to get Crohn’s disease than non-smokers.

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a diagnosis given to some people who have severely disrupted beliefs and experiences.

During an episode of schizophrenia, a person’s understanding and interpretation of the outside world is disrupted – they may:

  • lose touch with reality
  • see or hear things that are not there
  • hold irrational or unfounded beliefs
  • appear to act strangely because they are responding to these delusions and hallucinations.

An episode of schizophrenia can last for several weeks and can be very frightening. About one in 100 people will have one episode of schizophrenia, and two thirds of these will go on to have further episodes. Schizophrenia usually starts in the late teens or early 20s, but can also affect older people for the first time.

The causes are unknown but episodes of schizophrenia appear to be associated with changes in some brain chemicals. Stressful experiences and some recreational drugs can also trigger an episode in vulnerable people.At least 26 million people are living with schizophrenia worldwide according to the World Health Organization, and many more are indirectly affected by it.

Symptoms

Doctors describe two groups of symptoms in people with schizophrenia: positive and negative. Although the positive symptoms are often the most dramatic and, at least initially, the most distressing, the negative ones tend to cause the most problems, as they tend to be longer lasting.

Positive symptoms

The three main positive symptoms are:

  • feelings of being controlled by outside forces (ie. having one’s thoughts and actions taken over)
  • hearing, seeing, smelling or feeling things which are not there (hallucinations)
  • irrational and unfounded beliefs (delusions).

The delusions can often be very frightening – the person may believe that others are plotting to kill them or that their conversations are being recorded. Positive symptoms all tend to occur during acute episodes and can be particularly frightening.

Negative symptoms

The negative symptoms include tiredness, loss of concentration, and lack of energy and motivation, which may be exacerbated by the side-effects of drugs used to treat the positive symptoms. Because of these symptoms, people with schizophrenia are often unable to cope with everyday tasks, such as work and household chores. Suicide and self-harm are common in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia: around one in 10 take their own life.

Misconceptions about schizophrenia

There is more media misinformation about schizophrenia than about any other type of mental health problem. A diagnosis of schizophrenia does not mean ‘split personality’, or indicate that someone will be calm one minute and then be ‘out of control’ the next. 

Sensational stories in the media tend to present people with schizophrenia as dangerous, even though most people diagnosed with schizophrenia don’t commit violent crimes. Another misconception is that people who hear voices are dangerous, but actually voices are more likely to suggest that you harm yourself than someone else and people have a choice in whether they do what the voices say.

Treatments

Most people with schizophrenia are prescribed drugs to reduce the positive symptoms. The drugs may be prescribed for long periods and may have unpleasant side effects.

Some people need a great deal of help in managing the symptoms of schizophrenia. Others find ways to cope with experiences such as hearing voices and do not necessarily wish to receive any treatment.

Sometimes, people in an acute phase of the illness may need to be admitted to hospital under the Mental Health Act for their own, or other people’s, safety. People with schizophrenia are not usually dangerous to other people; they are more at risk of harm from others, or themselves.

Many people who are at risk of relapse carry Crisis Cards or have written up Advance Directives stating how they would like to be treated and what they do and do not find helpful. Mental health professionals do not have to follow these instructions, but it is considered good practice to take the person’s wishes into account.

Getting help

If you, or someone you care for, are experiencing the symptoms of schizophrenia you may wish to contact your GP who can prescribe drug treatments and refer you for psychiatric help. You may also be referred to social services and the local community mental health team who can support you at home.

If you need urgent support or you feel like harming or hurting yourself or anyone else, call 999 or go to the nearest hospital accident and emergency department.

If your need is less urgent, you can contact the NHS Direct helpline on 111, which is open 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. They can also provide information about your nearest A&E and other support services.

A major health inequality is that people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia die, on average, 20 years younger than the general population – this is unacceptable. Poor physical health can arise as a side effect of anti-psychotic medication – for example through weight gain and increased risk of developing diabetes. Poor physical health can also result because of a failure to monitor risk factors. We want GPs to carry out regular health checks for all people with severe mental health problems. 

Self-management of schizophrenia

Through self-management, many service users gain confidence, skills and knowledge to better manage their mental health and gain more control of their lives at a time when they may feel they have lost control. The Foundation is developing, delivering and evaluating a range of self-management interventions for people with severe psychiatric diagnoses in Wales including schizophrenia.

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Sodium Valproate Chrono 300MG

Epilim Chrono is basically Sodium valproate. This medicine comes in 500 mg, 300 mg and 200 mg. Its is widely used mood stabilizer. Epilim Chrono contains Sodium valproate which stabilizes electrical activity in human brain. Epilim Chrono is used to treat:

  • Epilepsy 
  • Panic attack
  • Anxiety disorder 
  • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Epilim Chrono should not be used by women during pregnancy as it can cause birth defects.

Epilim Chrono Weight Gain Tablets

Epilim Chrono tablet’s major side effect is weight gain. That why some people try to use it as a weight gain tablet. betterhealthfacts.com strongly suggest you to use these tablets only after consulting a doctor.

Epilim Chrono Side Effects

Epilim Chrono is known for its side effects from past few years. Some of its common side effects are
Tiredness
Sedation
Gastrointestinal Disturbances
Tremor
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