Some types of primary cancer are more likely to spread to the brain. The primary cancer is where the cancer first started. These include:
Sometimes, secondary brain cancer is found before the primary cancer has been diagnosed. For a small number of people it is not possible to find the primary cancer. This is called secondary brain cancer from an unknown primary.
We also have other information about primary brain tumours.
Secondary brain cancer can cause similar symptoms to primary brain tumours.
As a tumour grows, it can press on or grow into nearby areas of the brain. This can cause symptoms because it stops that part of the brain from working normally.
The first symptoms may be due to the tumour causing a build-up of pressure inside the skull. This is called raised intracranial pressure.
Symptoms depend on where the tumour is in the brain. They can include:
- feeling or being sick
- seizures (fits)
- changes in personality or being confused
- numbness or weakness on one side of the body
- problems with speech.
Some people might not have any symptoms. Instead, the tumour may be found during tests to find out more about the primary cancer.
A doctor may suspect secondary brain cancer if you have symptoms, and:
- you have had cancer before, even a long time ago
- a secondary cancer has been found in other places, such as the liver or bones
- there is more than one tumour in the brain – this is because primary brain tumours usually only affect one area of the brain.
Your doctors will need to do some tests to diagnose secondary brain cancer. You will have one of the following:
- Brain CT scan
- Brain MRI scan
Your doctor may also:
- do a neurological examination
- arrange blood tests to check your general health and how well your kidneys and liver are working.
Rarely, if scans have found any tumours, you may have a biopsy. Your doctor or nurse will explain more about this.
Waiting for test results can be a difficult time. We have more information that can help.
Finding out you have secondary brain cancer can be very difficult. You may feel shocked and find it hard to understand or accept. Talking about how you feel to close family and friends may help. Your doctor and specialist nurse can also give you support.
Macmillan is also here to support you. If you would like to talk, you can:
- Call the Macmillan Support Line on 0808 808 00 00
- Chat to our specialists online
- Visit our secondary brain cancer forum to talk with people who have been affected by brain tumours, share your experience, and ask an expert your questions.
You may also want to get support from a brain tumour charity, such as:
Driving and secondary brain cancer
If you are diagnosed with a secondary brain tumour, you must stop driving straight away.
You may not be allowed to drive for a time after diagnosis. Your doctor, surgeon or specialist nurse will tell you if this applies to you. This change can be upsetting and frustrating. But you must follow the advice they give you.
If you have a driving licence, you must tell the licencing agency you have been diagnosed with secondary brain cancer. If you live in England, Scotland or Wales, contact the Drivers and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA) on 0300 790 6806. If you live in Northern Ireland, contact the Driver and Vehicle Agency (DVA) on 0300 200 7861.
You could be fined if you do not tell them. You could also be prosecuted if you have an accident.
If you have to stop driving, the DVLA or DVA will tell you when you are allowed to start driving again. This depends on:
- how many tumours there are and where they are in the brain
- whether you have had any seizures
- your treatment
- the type of driving license you have.